Tree spotlight no:8 – Plane Tree

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

2033 year old Plan Tree in Azerbaijan

Platanus is a genus consisting of a small number of tree species native to the Northern Hemisphere. They are the sole living members of the family Platanaceae. All members of Plantus are tall, reaching 30–50 m (98–164 ft) in height. All except for P. Kerrii are deciduous, and most are found in riparian or other wetland habitats in the wild, though proving drought-tolerant in cultivation. The hybrid London plane has proved particularly tolerant of urban conditions.

They are often known in English as planes or plane trees. Some North American species are called Sycamores (especially Platanus Occidentalis), although the term sycamore also refers to the Ficus Sycomorus, the plant originally so named, and to the Sycamore maple Acer Pseudoplatanus.

london plane leaves and fruit.job

Botany:

The flowers are reduced and are borne in balls (globose heads); 3–7 hairy sepals may be fused at the base, and the petals are 3–7 and are spatulate. Male and female flowers are separate, but borne on the same plant (monoecious). The number of heads in one cluster (inflorescence) is indicative of the species (see table below). The male flower has 3–8 stamens; the female has a superior ovary with 3–7 carpels. Plane trees are wind-pollinated. Male flower-heads fall off after shedding their pollen.

After being pollinated, the female flowers become achenes that form an aggregate ball. Typically, the core of the ball is 1 cm in diameter and is covered with a net of mesh 1 mm, which can be peeled off. The ball is 2.5–4 cm in diameter and contains several hundred achenes, each of which has a single seed and is conical, with the point attached downward to the net at the surface of the ball. There is also a tuft of many thin stiff yellow-green bristle fibers attached to the base of each achene. These bristles help in wind dispersion of the fruits as in the dandelion.

plane tree seed head

The leaves are simple and alternate. The mature bark peels off or exfoliates easily in irregularly shaped patches, producing a mottled, scaly appearance. On old trunks, bark may not flake off, but thickens and cracks instead.

Uses

The principal use of these trees is as ornamental trees, especially in urban areas and by roadsides. The London plane is particularly popular for this purpose. The American plane is cultivated sometimes for timber and investigations have been made into its use as a biomass crop. The oriental plane is widely used as an ornamental and also has a number of minor medicinal uses.

Cultural history

Most significant aspects of cultural history apply to Platanus orientalis in the Old World. The tree is an important part of the literary scenery of Plato’s dialogue Phaedrus. Because of Plato, the tree also played an important role in the scenery of Cicero’s De Oratore.

Tree Spotlight – No. 2 : The Oregon Maple

Acer_macrophyllum

  • Acer Macrophyllum, the big leaf maple or Oregon Maple is a large deciduous tree in the genus Acer.
  • It can grow up to 48.89 meters (160ft 5in) tall, but more commonly reaches 15-2- meters (50-60 ft) tall. It is native to western North America, mostly near the Pacific coast, from southernmost Alaska to southern California.
  • It has the largest leaves of any maple,

  • It has the largest leaves of any maple, typically 15–30 cm (5.9–11.8 in) across, with five deeply incised palmate lobes, with the largest running to 61 centimeters (24 in). In the fall, the leaves turn to gold and yellow, often to spectacular effect against the backdrop of evergreen conifers.

  • The flowers are produced in spring in pendulous racemes 10–15 cm (4–6 in) long, greenish-yellow with inconspicuous petals. The fruit is a paired winged samara, each seed 1–1.5 centimeters (3⁄8–5⁄8 in) in diameter with a 4–5-centimeter (1 5⁄8–2-inch) wing.

  • Color/Appearance: Unlike most other hardwoods, the sapwood of maple lumber is most commonly used rather than its heartwood. Sapwood color ranges from almost white, to a light golden or reddish brown, while the heartwood is a darker reddish brown. Silver Maple can also be seen with curly or quilted grain patterns.

  • Grain/Texture: Grain is generally straight, but may be wavy. Has a fine, even texture. The growth rings tend to be lighter and less distinct in Soft Maples than in Hard Maple.

  • Rot Resistance: Rated as non-durable to perishable in regard to decay resistance.

  • Workability: Fairly easy to work with both hand and machine tools, though maple has a tendency to burn when being machined with high-speed cutters such as in a router. Turns, glues, and finishes well, though blotches can occur when staining, and a pre-conditioner, gel stain, or toner may be necessary to get an even color.

  • Odor: No characteristic odor.

  • Allergies/Toxicity: Bigleaf Maple, along with other maples in the Acer genus have been reported to cause skin irritation, runny nose, and asthma-like respiratory effects. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more information.

  • Pricing/Availability: Should be very moderately priced, though figured pieces such as curly or quilted grain patterns are likely to be much more expensive.

  • Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices or on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

  • Common Uses: Veneer, paper (pulpwood), boxes, crates/pallets, musical instruments, turned objects, and other small specialty wood items.

  • Comments: Big leaf Maple is appropriately named, as its leaves (shown below) are the largest of any maple, commonly reaching an overall width of 6 to 12 inches (15-30 cm) across. Big leaf Maple is a commercially important hardwood timber for the United States’ west coast, where it is virtually the only commercial maple species in the region.

Tree Spotlight – No.1: Cherry Blossom

rows of cherry blossom trees

  • Common Name: Sweet Cherry, Wild Cherry, European Cherry
  • Scientific Name: Prunus avium
  • Distiribution: Europe and Asia
  • Tree Size: 32-65 ft (10-20 m) tall, 1-2 ft (.3-.6 m) trunk diameter

    Colour/ Appearance: Heartwood is a light pinkish brown when freshly cut, darkening to a deeper golden brown with time and upon exposure to light. Sapwood is a pale yellowish color, typically 1-2″ wide.

    Grain/ Texture: Has a fine to medium texture with close grain. The grain is usually straight or slightly wavy.

    Endgrain: Semi-ring-porous; small pores in no specific arrangement; solitary and radial multiples of 2-3; gum/deposits occasionally present; growth rings distinct due to a concentration of earlywood pores; rays visible without lens; parenchyma absent.

    Rot resistance: Heartwood is rated as being moderately durable to non-durable regarding decay resistance. Sweet Cherry is also susceptible to insect attack.

    Workability: Sweet Cherry is easy to work with both machine and hand tools. The only difficulties typically arise if the wood is being stained, as it can sometimes give blotchy results due to its fine, close grain. A sanding sealer or gel stain is recommended. Glues, turns, and finishes well.

    Odour: No characteristic odor.

    Allergies/ Toxicity: Although there have been no adverse health effects reported for Sweet Cherry, the closely related Black Cherry Black has been reported to cause respiratory effects.

    Pricing/ availability: Typically only available in Europe (or from orchards), Sweet Cherry is usually only sold in smaller sizes or as veneer. Prices should be moderate within the tree’s natural distribution.

    Sustinability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices or on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

    Common Uses: Veneer, furniture, cabinetry, turned objects, musical instruments, and carvings.

    Comments: Sweet Cherry is the Old World counterpart to Black Cherry found in North America. Sweet Cherry is said to exhibit a bit more of a color contrast than Black Cherry, and it also tends to be slightly denser and stronger. However, the tree itself tends to be smaller than Prunus serotina, and does not yield the larger sizes of lumber that are available for the American species.