Tree=home made paper

final push 3 lo resDuring the recent felling of the second large Oregon Maple in the main square the Trinity College staff and the tree cutting contractors were very careful to cut the bark segments as large as possible. All sections of wood were carried away to be dried and used by the staff in strictly controlled projects throughout the college. I was therefore delighted to be able to get a large bag full of twigs, leaves and seeds prior to being made into chipping.

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The team received a few small sections of wood for scientific and artistic investigations. Where David Taylor with the help of Peter O’Reilly started testing the wood’s compression capabilities parallel to the length of the branch (see image above, some samples post compression).  David will describe and discuss some of his findings in a later blog post.  Soon after I received the plant materials I began workshopping with them. 

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I started off by dusting off some of my wood carving tools and proceeded to chip off some of the bark off a small section of a branch (roughly 10 inches in diameter) to reveal the hard wood underneath, See image below.

I also sanded and wire brushed another section before applying etching ink to its surface and using is as a wood print. See image

After some research I became especially interested in trying to make some home made paper making using the plant materials that I had collected. There are many online resources describing in various levels of detail, using basic and/ or specialist equipment, how to go about this. Before I describe how I made the paper and show you some images of the final results, which I will do in the next blog post, I thought it would be interesting to include some information about the paper making process as described in http://www.paperslurry.com.

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If you ask someone what paper is made of, most would immediately say trees. However, with the hand paper making process, you can use other plant fibers to make an incredible range of handmade papers.

Some plants are grown specifically for the hand paper making process, others can be sustainably harvested from the wild, and even more can be made from leftover fibers from the garden, kitchen, or even agricultural waste. To make strong paper, choose plants with a high cellulose fiber content.

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To make paper, you’ll harvest your material, dry it, cut it into pieces for cooking, simmer it to break down the fibers, and then process it in a blender or by hand-beating until it disperses into water to form pulp.

But first, choose the type of plant fiber you’d like to use:

Not all plants make good pulp strong enough to hold together into a sheet of paper, and some plant fibers are usable but require many hours of beating by hand or with special machinery to break down the fibers. A good guideline for usable material: If the plant stands over 2 feet tall on its own, it most likely contains enough cellulose to make paper. To know for sure the practicality of processing any specific fiber into pulp, you’ll have to read other papermakers’ accounts or rely on your own trial and error.

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Collecting:

You’ll need to collect at least 2 pounds of dry plant material to make it worth your while. A pound of dry grass material makes about ten 8-1/2-by-11-inch sheets, and 1 pound of dry leaf material makes about 15 sheets.

Be sure to harvest responsibly. Take only small amounts, allowing the plant to recover, and be aware of the effects you might cause by taking plant material (disrupting insects, for example). Make sure you have permission to forage on others’ property or on public land.

You can experiment with how your harvest affects the resulting paper. Plant fiber and paper often appear different when plants are harvested in fall than when they’re harvested in spring.

Grass. Paper made from grass is usually a bit weaker and more brittle than from leaf fiber, but it can be interesting in texture, it’s easy to find, and you can harvest grass in any season. You’ll use the whole stalk — all but the roots. After harvesting, dry grass completely and then bundle to avoid leaf mold. Usually, long leaves are the best source of fiber. Tear leaves against the grain; the more difficult they are to tear, the more likely they’ll be to make good paper. Iris leaves and lily leaves make strong paper and are easy to process. Thicker leaves, such as yucca and hemp, are more time-consuming or not practical to process by hand. Spring and summer harvest: Only cut individual outer leaves near the base of the plant to ensure continued growth. Fall harvest: Collect leaves as they fall from the plant or when they’re able to release gently. Dry leaves completely and then bundle to store them.

Making and Preparing Pulp:

To turn your harvested plant material into paper, you must first cook it — literally, in pots — and beat it by hand, with a blender, or with another machine to break down the fibers into pulp. Keep in mind that these instructions are for grass fibers or leaf fibers.

You’ll cook the plant material in an alkaline solution. Washing soda is the most available alkali — you can find it in supermarkets. It’s not as pure as soda ash, which most papermakers use, so it might leave residue on paper or cause it to decay more quickly, but it’s less expensive and works for most plant fibers.

Supplies for cooking:

Scissors; the alkali (20 percent of the dry fiber weight; 3-1/2 ounces of washing soda and 8 quarts of water per pound of dry fiber); a large, nonfood, nonreactive pot (stainless steel, glass, or enamel-coated); a scale; pot holders; nonfood, nonreactive stirring utensils; a mesh strainer; a bucket; and rubber gloves. For beating fiber, you’ll need a nonfood blender.

Safety notes. Besides using nonreactive utensils and pots, use separate paper making pots and utensils, and, if possible, don’t work in the kitchen. You’ll want to work somewhere you can splash water and get water on the ground. Some plants might give off harmful vapors when cooking, so be sure you know the qualities of the plant you’re using, and cook outside — or under a hooded vent as a last resort. Very important: Add alkali to the water before it boils. Do not add boiling water to alkali or vice versa — it could splatter or explode and burn you.

Wear rubber gloves, goggles, or a face mask when working with an alkali.

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Cooking the fiber:

First, weigh your dry fiber before wetting it. Remember, you’ll want at least 2 pounds to make enough paper to make this whole task worthwhile.

With scissors, cut the fiber into 1/2-inch to 1-inch strips (if you’re going to hand-beat fibers, cut them into 2-inch pieces) to reduce cooking time and prevent tangling in the blender. As you work, sort out twigs or other foreign material.

Then, soak fiber in plain water overnight to fully hydrate before cooking and processing.

When you’re ready to cook, fill a pot with water to cover the fiber, about 2 gallons per pound — you’ll want enough so the fiber can move around while cooking.

Wearing gloves, measure the washing soda or other alkali, 20 percent of your dry weight, or about 3-1/2 ounces per pound of dry fiber.

Heat the pot of water and add the washing soda before it boils. As the washing soda dissolves, add the soaked fiber and stir. Bring to a

boil, and then turn down the heat and simmer.

Every half-hour while simmering, stir the fiber and test it for doneness. Take a piece of fiber, rinse it, and pull it in the direction of the plant’s growth. If the fiber pulls apart easily, it’s ready.

Turn off the heat and remove the pot from the stove. Pour the cooked fiber through a strainer into a bucket (not down the drain yet), and rinse the fiber until the water runs clear. Make sure you remove all the washing soda at this point.

If you’re not dumping the water into a water-treatment system, or you plan to dump the water outside, mix the plant juices with vinegar to neutralize the solution, or you’ll introduce a toxin into the environment.

Beating the fiber. After the fiber is cooked, you’ll have to beat it to further break down the material into the soft pulp that you’ll use to make sheets of paper. Papermakers often hand-beat fibers, which generally results in the strongest paper. Others use large equipment specifically for papermaking. The easiest and quickest method at home is to use a nonfood blender.

Add a handful of your cooked fiber to a blender (make sure it’s fully hydrated; soak overnight if using stored fiber) and fill the blender about three-quarters full with water. Put the lid on, and then beat at a medium or high speed. If the blender sounds strained, check to make sure fiber isn’t wrapped around the blades (which is why you’ll want to cut it into smaller pieces before cooking). The blender also might strain if you’ve added too much fiber. It’s better to err on the side of less fiber (and more blender batches) because if the fiber isn’t beaten enough into uniform pulp, you’ll pull less-uniform, clumpy sheets of paper. The length of blending time depends on the fiber. Try about 20 seconds at first and then increase in 20-second increments. You’ll know you have pulp when the fibers don’t clump and look very fine, almost cloud-like dispersed in the water. If you still see strings of fibers and they’re clumpy, you’ll need to blend a bit longer.

See the next section to set up your paper making studio. You’ll add pulp directly to your vat or pour it into a bucket and transfer it to the vat as needed. Follow the step-by-step instructions in the photos above to learn how to pull sheets of paper.

Basic Equipment for the Paper making Process:

You probably already own most of the equipment you need, could improvise with what you have, or could find inexpensive items at a local thrift store. You’ll need a flat work surface that can get wet and can be easily dried and cleaned. Water will splash onto the floor and on surrounding surfaces, so setting up in a garage or outside is ideal.

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Mould and deckle: This is the screen and frame that holds the sheet of paper you’ll pull out of the vat. Many professional ones are made from hardwood (which resists warping from water), but you can make your own out of cheaper wood, such as pine, or even staple a screen to an old picture frame. Instructions for making a mould and deckle are easily found online.

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Vat: This is a tub larger than your mould and deckle. You’ll fill it with water and pulp and pull up sheets of paper from it. Use a large storage tub, dish tub, a freestanding plastic vat with a drain and plug on the bottom, or even an old secondhand sink.

Felts: Not actually felt, these materials are what you’ll lay, or couch, your wet, formed paper onto after you pull it from the vat. Any quality wool material would work — old blankets, nonfusible pellon from a fabric store, or papermakers’ felts. These must be cut approximately 2 inches wider than all sides of your paper (or your mould and deckle).

Plastic buckets with handles: These will hold pulp and help in draining vats. Paper making uses a lot of water. Because you’ll be working with natural plant fibers and few other elements, you can set up a water-collection system to use the water for other purposes around your garden or homestead.

A press or sponges and brayer: You can use sponges to remove excess water from your pulled paper, or you can assemble a simple press to squeeze out much more water and reduce drying time. Search online for examples; people have found creative solutions. A brayer or similar rolling tool is helpful for smoothing paper and releasing more water.

Drying equipment: This could be sheets of Plexiglas or even a clothesline, depending on how you’d like to finish your paper and leave it to dry. You may want to experiment. Drying on Plexiglas will make one side of the paper very smooth; drying on a line will be easier to set up but could lead to more rippling in the paper, though this can be smoothed with a bit of water later. You could also dry between sheets of corrugated cardboard with a fan nearby. The corrugations in the cardboard will allow air to flow.

Storing pulp: Drain the vat through a mesh strainer lined with a fine mesh bag (such as a “brewer’s bag” used by homebrewers) into a bucket, squeezing out as much water as you can. Form pulp into a ball. The pulp will last in the refrigerator in a container until it begins to mold. You can also dry it completely and store it in a cupboard.

After you practice, experiment; try blending different plant fibers together, or add tea leaves, oatmeal, or other inclusions into the vat before you pull paper. As you watch plants transform from their original color to the hues and textures they’ll take on after cooking, then into pulp, and finally to the look and feel of the final paper, you’ll see your plants anew

For further reading:

  • Paper making with Garden Plants and Weeds by Helen Hiebert is a great studio guide for those interested in experimenting with botanical paper making.

  • Hand Paper making Magazine’s Beginner Articles has a wealth of articles from various authors about finding, harvesting, and processing different plant fibers.

  • A fantastic table of plant fibers that can be processed by hand, by artist and hand papermaker Catherine Nash.

Anatomy and reproduction of the Bigleaf Maple

Anatomy of the Bigleaf Maple:

This tree is made up of many different parts, including:

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The bark: When the tree is young, the bark is a brownish color with a smooth layer. As the tree matures, it becomes a darker brown, and furrows and ridges begin to appear on the outer layer of the bark.

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The twig: The twig is smooth, round, and commonly a pale green in color. In the fall, it turns a bright green red, and finally grayish brown. There are two buds on opposite sides of a main bud, which are bigger than the other two, and these buds have 3 or 4 scales.

The roots: The roots of the tree are often shallow but widespread; this type of root system make it easier for the plant to grow shallow or saturated soils.

The leaf: The leaf is a simple, deciduous leaf, and it is between 6 to 12 inches in diameter, but sometimes much larger. It is also palmately lobed, which means the leaf has five “arms.” The leaf is dark green on the top, and light green on the bottom. When crushed or cut, the petiole discharges a white sap.

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The flower: The flowers are monoecious. The flowers are a small, and are often yellow. They bloom in long racemes.

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The fruit: The fruit are double samaras. The wings on the samaras are 1.5 to 2 inches long, and occur at acute angles. The head of the seed appears to be hairy. When the seed is mature, it turns a tan color.

Reproduction

Reproductive parts of a bigleaf maple.

The Bigleaf maple’s main form of reproduction is sexually, but it can also reproduce vegetatively. Maple is polygamous, bearing both male flowers and perfect flowers in one cylindrical raceme. The flowers appear before the leaves in early spring. The greenish-yellow flowers are pollinated by insects within 2 to 4 weeks after bud-burst. The flowers on the bigleaf maple start to show up when the tree is about 10 years old, but trees growing in an open area start to produce flowers earlier and also produce more flowers. These flowers are pollinated by insects, and small animals may also help disperse the seeds. The seed can only germinate for a couple months. If they do not, they will start to decay near the end of the winter months. Even indoors, the seed will not last for more than a few months at low to room temperature. Another factor that reduces germination rates is the consumption of the seeds by rodents. One year old seedlings in Oregon were about 2.3-3 inches in height. This plant grows more slowly when it is grown in the shade of another tree, especially Douglas-firs. This tree can also regrow from the root if it is cut down or killed.

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Seed:

Bigleaf maple seeds are borne in pubescent, double samaras with wings from 1.4 to 2 inches long. Seeds are triangular or oval in shape and 0.16 to 0.47 in. long. There are from 2700 to 4000 seeds/lb. Seeds ripen early in September and October, and are dispersed by the wind from October through January. Many seeds may remain on trees during this period.

The Oregon Maple – general facts

Acer macrophyllum, the bigleaf maple or Oregon maple, is a large deciduous tree in the genus Acer.

It can grow up to 157.80 feet (48.10 m) tall, but more commonly reaches 15–20m (50–65ft) tall. It is native to western North America, mostly near the Pacific coast, from southernmost Alaska to southern California. Some stands are also found inland in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountains of central California, and a tiny population occurs in central Idaho.

Description

It has the largest leaves of any maple, typically 15–30cm (5.9–11.8in) across, with five deeply incised palmate lobes, with the largest running to 61 centimetres (24in). In the fall, the leaves turn to gold and yellow, often to spectacular effect against the backdrop of evergreen conifers.

The flowers are produced in spring in pendulous racemes 10–15cm (4–6in) long, greenish-yellow with inconspicuous petals. The fruit is a paired winged samara, each seed 1–1.5 centimetres (3⁄8–5⁄8in) in diameter with a 4–5-centimetre (1 5⁄8–2-inch) wing.

Habitat

Bigleaf maple can form pure stands on moist soils in proximity to streams, but are generally found within raparian hardwood forests or dispersed, (under or within), relatively open canopies of conifers, mixed evergreens or oaks. In cool and moist temperate mixed woods they are one of the dominant species.

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Uses

Bigleaf maple has been used for creating syrup but it is not common. This is because the sugar maple has a higher sugar content. Nevertheless, syrup production has become a localized industry in bigleaf maple groves where weather conditions (including sub-freezing winters) are especially suitable, such as near sea-level in British Columbia and at higher elevations along the West Coast from Washington through Northern California.

Food

Maple syrup has been made from the sap of bigleaf maple trees. While the sugar concentration is about the same as in Acer saccharum (sugar maple), the flavor is somewhat different. Interest in commercially producing syrup from bigleaf maple sap has been limited. Although not traditionally used for syrup production, it takes about 40 volumes of sap to produce 1 volume of maple syrup.

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Lumber

Bigleaf maple is the only commercially important maple of the Pacific Coast region.

The wood is used for applications as diverse as furniture, piano frames and salad bowls. Highly figured wood is not uncommon and is used for veneer, stringed instruments, guitar bodies, and gun stocks.

The wood is primarily used in veneer production for furniture, but is also used in musical instrument production, interior paneling, and other hardwood products; the heartwood is light, reddish-brown, fine-grained, moderately heavy, and moderately hard and strong. In California, land managers do not highly value bigleaf maple, and it is often intentionally knocked over and left un-harvested during harvest of Douglas fir and redwood stands.

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Big Tree

The Oregon Maples, which grew in front square, Trinity College Dublin, until this year were 4.96 and 4.11 meters in girth and both reached about 16 meters high.

2017 SEM images – part 1

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After recently posting a reminder of the beautiful SEM images taken by Clodagh Dooley of AML in TCD I am delighted today to post some new wonderful SEM images taken of samples from the sibling Oregon Maple that was recently felled in Trinity College Dublin.

Colin Reid of the CMA (Centre for Microscopy and Analysis), Trinity College Dublin, kindly came to our rescue when Clodagh left TCD. During early August David Taylor and I met with Colin Reid, who had kindly portioned some of his time to work with us to choose sample cuttings, image viewpoints and take some SEM images. The resultant images taken by Colin are beautiful and inspiring.  The following slide show is taken from a seed pod.  

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The following slide show is taken from a cross section of a seed twig. 

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The following slide show is taken from a cross section of a damaged twig. 

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Oregon Maple 2017 SEM images revisited

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Revisiting the wonderful images Clodagh Dooley took on the Scanning Electron Microscope in the Advanced Microscopy Lab, Trinity College Dublin during the summer of 2017.

Since the collapse of the Oregon Maple on the 1st of July 2018 I have been revisiting the work completed by the Trinity College Trees Team on this tree during 2017.

Clodagh Dooley took some great images, which later inspired the artwork created by Hassett and suspended in the Oregon Maple during October 2017.  See image above.

To follow a brief recap of some of these images taken of pollen grains (see slideshow bellow and two images of bark lichen which follow the slide show). 

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Trees of South Africa – canopy tour

During a recent visit to South Africa part of my trip took in the Tsitsikamma Canopy Tour – zip lining through the canopy of trees along ten high suspension wires, one up to sixty meters long…

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Many of the platforms are built around giant Outeniqua Yellowwood trees that are up to 700 years old! Standing within the crown of these giants and looking down at the lush forest floor thirty meters below was an experience of a lifetime.

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We learnt a lot about the flora and fauna that live in the forest during the tour. Having made artworks inspired by one of the oldest trees in Trinity College Dublin (The Oregon Maple, now sadly fallen). One important fact that we learnt as we zipped along was that the reason that it was feasible to attach platforms and cables to these trees without damaging them was that their root structure was so shallow allowing the trees to be flexible and resilient to the many visitors who chose to see the trees from this height.

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